# Source (Internet): Global Teachers Academy

### Syllabus:

__Discrete Structure__

Sets, relation, Functions, Pigeonhole Principle, inclusion -Exclusion Principle, Equivalence and Partial orderings, elementary counting techniques Probability, Measures for Information and total information Compatibility: Model of computation-Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata, Non-determinism and NFS, DPDA and PDAs and languages accepted by these structure, Grammars languages, non compatibility and example of non computable problems Graph-definitions walks paths, trails, connected graphs, regular and bipartite graphs, cycles and circuits, tree and rooted tree, spanning trees, eccentricity of a vertex radius and diameter of a graph, central graphs, centers of a tree, Hamiltonian and Eulerian graphs, planar graphs Group: Finite field and error correcting / detecting codes

__Computer Arithmetic__

Proportional (Boolean Logic), Predicate Logic, Well formed formula (WFF), Satisfactory and tautology Logic Families: TTL, ECL and C-MOS sates, Boolean algebra and minimization of Boolean functions, Flip-Flop types race conditions and comparison, Design of combinational and sequential circuits Representation of Integer: Octal, Hex, Decimal and Binary, 2;s Complement and 1's complement arithmetic, Floating point representation

__Programming in C and C++__

Programming in C: Element of C-Tokens, Identifiers, Data types in C, Control structure in C, Sequence selection and iteration, Structured data types in C-arrays, structure, union, string an pointers O-O Programming concepts: Classes , Object, installation, Inheritance, Polymorphism and overloading C++ Programming: Element of C++ Tokens,. identifiers, Variable and constants, Data types, Operator, Control Statement, Function parameter passing, Class and object, Constructor and destructor, overloading inheritance temples , exception handling

__Relational database design and SQL__

E-R Diagram and their transformation to relation design, normalization -INF, 2NF and BCNF SQL: Data definition language(DDL) Data manipulation language (DML), Data control language (DCL) commands database objects like. Views indexes, sequences , synonyms , data dictionary

__Data and file Structure__

Data information ,definition of data structure, arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees,. graphs, priority queues, and heaps File Structure: Fields, records, and files sequential direct, index Sequential and elative files Hashing, inverted lists multi list, B trees and B+ trees

__Computer Network__

Network Fundaments: Local area Network (LAN), metropolitan Area Network *(MKAN), Wide area Network (WAN)m, Wireless Network , Inter Network Reference Model: The OSI model , TCP/IP model Data Communication: cannel capacity. Transmission media. Twisted pasi Coaxial cables, Fiber optic cables, Wireless transmission -radio, microwave infrared and millimeter waves Light wave transmission , telephones-local loop, trunks, multiplexing switching, narrowband ISDNm broadband ISDNm ATM, High speed LANS, Cellular radio Communication satellite-Geosynchronous and low orbit Internetworking: Switch/Hub . Bridge, router, Gateways Concatahetsd virtual circuits, Tunneling, Fragmentation Firewalls Routing: Virtual circuits and datagram's, Routing algorithms , congestion control Network Security: Cryptography-Public key, Secret Key, domain Name System (DNS), electronics mail and worldwide web (WWW), the DNs Resource Records Name Services, E-Mail Architecture and Servers

__System Software__

Assemble language fundamental (8085 based assembly language programming), Assemblr-2 pass and single pass, Macros and Microprocessor Loading , linking, program recordable, linkage editing text editor programming environments debugger and program generator Compilation and interpretation, Bootstrap compiler. Phase of Compilation process, Lexical analysis, Lex package on UNIX System context free grammar, Parsing and parse trees, representation pf parse (derivation) trees as nightmare and leftmost derivation , Bottom up parsers=-Shift reduce, operator, precedence, and LR . YACC package an on UNIX system Top down parses-Left recursion and its removal , recursive descend pares. Predictive parses, Intermediate codes, Quadruples, Triples, Intermediate code generation , Code generation, Code optimization

__Operating System(with Case study of UNIX)__

IMain function of operating system, Multiprogramming multiprocessing and multitasking Memory management: Virtual memory, Paging, fragmentation Concurrent processing: mutual exclusion, critical regions, locks ad unlock Scheduling: CPU Scheduling. I/o Scheduling, resource scheduling, Banker's Algorithm for deadlock handling

__UNIX__

The Unix system: File system,. process management, bourne shell shell variables, command line programming Filters and commands: Pr, Head , tail, cut paste. siort, uniq, tr, join, etc…Grep, egrep, fgrep etc, sed, awk, etc. System calls (like): create, open, close, read, write, seem link, unlink, stat, fstat, unmask, chmos, exec, fork, wair, system

__Software engineering__

ystem development cycle (SDCL) : Steps, water fall model, Prototypes, Spiral model Software Metrics: Software Project Management Software Design: System Design , Detailed design., function oriented design, Object oriented design, user interface design, Design level metrics Coding and testing : testing level metrics, Software quality ad reliability, clean room approach, Software reengineering

__Current Trends and Technologies__

The topic of current interest in Computer Science and Computer application hall be recovered. The expert shall use their judgment from time to time to include the topics of popular interest , which are expected to be known for an application development software professional they include Parallel computing Parallel virtual machine (PVM), and message passing interface (mpi), libraries and calls, advanced architecture, Today's fastest computers Mobile Computing Mobile Connectivity-Cells, Framework, wireless delivery technology and switching methods, mobile information access devices , mobile data internetworking standards, cellular data communication protocols , mobile computing application, Mobile database-Protocol, scope, tools, and technology, M-Business E-Technology

__Electronic Commerce__:

Framework , Media convergence of Application, Consumer application , Organization application

__Electronic payment System__:

Digital SyToken, Smart Cards, Credit Cards, Risks in Electronics Payment system Designing electronic payment system

__Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)__:

concept, Application (legal security and privacy), Issues, EDI and Electronic commerce Standardization and EDI, EDI Software implementation, EDI , envelope for message Transport, Internet-based EDI

__Digital Libraries and Data warehousing__:

Concept , Types of Digital Documents , Issues behind document infrastructure, Cooperate data warehouses

__Software Agents__:

Characteristics and Properties of Agents Technology behind software agents(Applets, Browser and Software Agents)

__Broad band Telecommunication__:

Concept, Frame relay, Cell relay, Switched Multimegabit Data Services, Asynchronous, Transfer Mode Main Concepts in geographical Information System (GIS), E-Cash E-Business, ERP packages

__Data Ware housing__:

Data Ware housing environments, Architecture of a data warehouses methodology, Analysis design, Construction and administration

__Data Mining__:

Extraction models and pattern form large database , data miming techniques , classification regression, clustering summarization, dependency modeling, link analysis, sequencing analysis, mining scientific and business data Windows Programming

__Introduction to Windows programming__: Win32 Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC), Documents and views, Resources message handling n windows Simple Application (in windows) Scrolling. splitting views. docking toolbars status bar, common dialogue Advanced Windows Programming Multiple document Interface (MDI), Multiplex threading, Object linking and Embedding (OLE), Active X control Active template Library (ATL), Network programming

Combinational circuit design, Sequential Circuit design, Hardware ad Micro programmed processor design, Instruction formats, Addressing models Memory types and organization, Interfacing peripheral devices, Interrupts Microprocessor architecture, Instruction set and Programming (8085. P-III/P-IV), Microprocessor applications

Database concepts, ER diagrams, Data model, Design of Relational Database, Normalization, SQL and QBE, Query Processing and Optimization, Centralized and Distributed Database, Security, Concurrency an recovery in centralized and Distributed Database System, Object oriented Database Management System (Concept, composite object , Integration with RDBMS application), ORACLE

Display system , input devise, 2D, geometry, Graphics operation, 3D Graphics, Animation Graphic Standard, Application concepts, Storage Devices, Input Tools, Authoring Tools, Application files

__Programming language, concepts, Paradigm and models__

Data , Data types, Operators, Expressions, Assignments , Flow of control-Control Structure, I/O Statement, User Defined and Built in Function parameter passing Principles , Classes, Inheritance, Class hierarchies, Polymorphism, Dynamic binding, reference semantics and their implementation

Principles, functions, lists, types and polymorphism, higher order functions lazy evaluation equations and pattern matching Principles, horn clauses and their execution, logical variables relations, data structure, Controlling the search order, programme development in prolog implementation of prolog, example programme in prolog

Principle of parallelism co routines, Communication and execution, Parallel virtual Machine (PVM) and message passing interface (MPI), routine an calls , Parallel programmes in PVM paradigm a swell as MPI, paradigm for simple problems like matrix multiplication Preconditions , post conditions, axiomatic approaches for semantic, correction's denotation semantics Complier structure, Compiler construction tools, coalition phases Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata, Non-Determinations, and NFA, DPDA and PDAs and language accepted by these structure, Grammars, language-Types of grammar-type,0, type 1, tope 2, type 3, The relationship between types of grammars, and finite machine, Pushdown automata and context free Framers, Lexical Analysis-regular express and regular languages. LEX pacemaker on UNIX, Conversion of NFA to DFA minimizing the number of states in a DFA, Compilation an interpretation Bootstrap Compilers Context free grammars, Parsing and parse trees, representation of parse trees as rightmost ma leftmost derivation. Bottom up parsers-shift reduce, operator precedence an LR, YACC package on UNIX, system, Top down parsers-Left recursion and its removal , recursive descent Parsers, Predictive parser Intermediate codes-Quadruples, triples, Intermediate code generation, Code generation, Code optimization

Analogue and Digital Transmission, Asynchronous and Synchronous transitions Transmission media, Multiplexing and Concentration Switch if techniques Polling Topologies m Networking devices, OSI, Reference Model Protocol for -(i) Data link layer, (ii) Network layer and (iii) Transpire layer , TCP/IP Protocol Network security, Network Administration

Definition , simple and composite structure, Arraue lists, stacks queues, Priority Queues, Binary trees , B-Trees Graphs Sorting searching Algorithms, Analysis of algorithms, Interpolation and Binary search, Asymmetric notation, Bih ohm, Omega and Theta, Average case case analysis of simple programmes like finding of maximum of n elements, recursion and its systematic removal, Quicksort-Non-recurive implementation with minimal stake storage, Design of algorithm(divide and Conquer, greedy method, Dynamic programming Back tracking, Brach and Bound(), Lower bound theory, Non-deterministic algorithm Non-Deterministic algprogramming, construct, Simple non-deterministic programs, NP-hard and NP-complete problems

Object, message, classed, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, aggregation, abstract, lasses, generalization and extension and restriction m Object oriented design, Multiple, inheritance metadata HTML, DHTML, XML, Scripting, JAVA, Sevelets, Applets

Software development models, Requirement analysis and specification software design Programming techniques and tools software validation and quality assurance techniques, Software maintenance and advanced concepts , Software management

Introduction, memory management, Support for concurrent process Scheduling, System deadlock, Multiplexing system , I/O Management distributes operating system Study of UNIX and Window NT definition, AI approach foe sloping problems Automated Reasoning with propositional logic and predicate logic-Fundamental proof procedure, Refutation , resolution refinement to resolution

(ordering/Pruning/Restriction strategies) State solace representation of problems, Bounding functions, breadth first depth first, A, A*, AO* etc. performance, comparison of various techniques Frame, scripts, Semantic nets, production systems, Procedural representation , Prolog programming Components of an expert system, Knowledge representation and acquisition techniques, Building expert system and shell RTNs. ATBNS. Parsing of Ambiguous, CFGs Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAGs) Systems approach to planning , designing, Development, Implementation and evaluation of MIS Decision making process, evaluation of DDS, Group decision support system And case studies, Adaptive design approach to DSS development, Cognitive style in DSS, Integrating experts and decision support systems definition, AI approach foe sloping problems Automated Reasoning with propositional logic and predicate logic Fundamental proof procedure, Refutation , resolution refinement to resolution (ordering/Pruning/Restriction strategies) State solace representation of problems, Bounding functions, breadth first depth first, A, A*, AO* etc. performance, comparison of various techniques Frame, scripts, Semantic nets, production systems, Procedural representation , Prolog programming Components of an expert system, Knowledge representation and acquisition techniques, Building expert system and shell RTNs. ATBNS. Parsing of Ambiguous, CFGs Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAGs) Systems approach to planning , designing, Development, Implementation and evaluation of MIS Decision making process, evaluation of DDS, Group decision support system And case studies, Adaptive design approach to DSS development, Cognitive style in DSS, Integrating experts and decision support systems

**Elective-I**

Theory of computation: Formal language, need for formal computational model, Non-Computational model on computational problems, Diagonal argument and Russell's paradox Deterministic Finite Automata(DFA), Non deterministic finite Automaton (NFA),Digital languages ad regular sets Equivalence, of DFA, and NFA Minimizing the numbers of state of a DFA, non regulate language m, and pumping lemma Pushdown Automaton (PDA. Deterministic, Pushdoam Automaton (DPDA), No equivalence of PDA and DPDA Context free grammars: greenback Normal form (GNF) ad Chomsky Normal Form (CNF), Ambiguity , Parse Tree, representation of derivation, Equivalence of PDA's and CFG;s Parsing techniques for parsing of general CFG' -Early's Cook-Kassami-YUNGer (CKY) and Tomitta parsing Linear Bounded Automaton (LBA): Power of LBA , Closure Properties Turing Machine (TM) : One tape, Multiple, the notion of time and space complexity in terms of TM, Construction of TM for simple problems, Computational Complexity Chomsky Hierarchy of Languages: Recursive and Recursively enumerable language

**Elective-II**

Model for information Channel: Discrete Memory less channel, Binary Symmetric Channel(BSC), Burst channel, Bit-error rates, Probability, entropy and Shannon's measure of information, Mutual information, channel capacity theorem, rate and optimally of information transform mission

Variable Length codes: Prefix Codes, Human Codes, lempel -Ziew (LZ) Codes, Optimally of these cases Information content of these codes Error Correcting and detecting Codes: Finite fields, Hamming Distance, Bounds of Codes, Linear (Party check) Codes, Parity check matrix, generator Matrix, Decoding of linear codes, Hamming Codes

__Image Processing__: Image Processing, Spatial Fourier, Transform Discrete Spatial Fourier Transform Restoration , Loss compression of images(pictures)

__Data compression techniques__: representation and compression of text, sound, picture, and video files based of MPEG and JPEG standards

**Elective-III**

Linear programming Problem (LPP) in the standard form, LPP in canonical form, conversion of LPP in Standard form to LPP in Canonical form Simplex-Prevention of cyclic computation in simplex and Tableau,. Big-M method, Dual Simplex and reviewed simplex Complexity of simple Algorithm(s), Exponential behaviors of simplex Ellipsoid method and Karmakar's Method for solving LPPs . Solving simple LLPs through theses methods, comparison of complexity of theses methods

__Assignment and Transportation Problems__: Simple algorithm like Hungarian method etc

Shortest Path Problems: Dijkstra'a and Moore's method Complexity Network Flow problem: Formulation, Max Flow min-Cut Theorem. Ford and Fulkerson;s algorithm,. Exponential behavior of f rod and fulkerson;s alorithim, Malhotra-Promod KUMar-Maheswari (MPM), Polynomial Method for solving network problem, Bipartite Graphs and Matching, Solving matching using network flow problems

__Matriods__: Definition, Graphic and co graphic matriods, Matriods intersection problem

Non-Linear programming: Kuhn-Tucker conditions, Convex function and Convex region, Convex programming problems, Algorithms for solving convex programming problems-Rate of

convergence of iterative method for solving theses problems

**Elective-IV**

__Neural network__: Perception Model, Linear Severability and XOR problem, Two and three layered neural network, Backprpaogation-Convergence, Hopfield nets, Neural net Learning, Application Fuzzy System: Definition of a Fuzzy ste, fuzzy relation, fuzzy functions, Fuzzy measures, Fuzzy reasoning, Application of Fuzzy systems

**Elective-V**

__UNIX__: Operating system, Structure of UNIX, Operating system, UNIX Commands, Interfacing with UNIX, Editors and Compliers for UNIX, LEX and YACC , File System, System calls, Filters, Shell programming Windows: Windows environment,. Unicode, Documents and Views, Drawing in window, Message handing, Scrolling and Splitting views, Docking toolbar and status bar, Common dialogue and control, MDI, Multithreading , OLE, Active X Control, ATL, Database, access, Network programming

**Result(s):**

- NET JRF syllabus for computer science
- UGC NET computer science syllabus

UGC NET Computer Science textbooks: There are several textbooks available for UGC NET Computer Science, including "Computer Science and Engineering" by S.K. Jain and "Computer Science" by R.K. Sharma. These textbooks cover all the topics in the UGC NET Computer Science syllabus and provide detailed explanations and examples.

Remember to also refer to the official UGC website for any updates or changes in the exam pattern or syllabus. Good luck with your preparations!