Frequently asked Bio Technology Technical Questions Answers - REQMAT BLOGSPOT
Frequently asked Bio Technology Technical Questions Answers

Frequently asked Bio Technology Technical Questions Answers

REQMAT BLOGSPOT - Nareddula Rajeev Reddy NRR

What is a gene and how does it carry genetic information?

A gene is a specific sequence of DNA that carries genetic information. Genes provide instructions for the production of proteins, which are essential for the growth, development, and function of all living organisms. DNA is organized into genes, which are located on chromosomes within the nucleus of cells. The sequence of nucleotides in a gene determines the specific amino acid sequence of the protein it encodes.

What is a protein and how is it produced from DNA?

A protein is a large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins perform a wide variety of functions in living organisms, including catalysis, structure, transport, and regulation. DNA provides the genetic information for the production of proteins through a process called transcription. During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase reads the sequence of nucleotides in a gene and synthesizes a complementary RNA molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA molecule then moves out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm, where it is translated into a protein by ribosomes.

What is a plasmid and how is it used in genetic engineering?

A plasmid is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently of the main chromosome in bacterial cells. Plasmids are naturally found in many bacterial species and can carry genes that confer antibiotic resistance, virulence factors, or other desirable traits. In genetic engineering, plasmids are used as vectors to introduce new genes into bacterial cells or other organisms. The new gene is inserted into the plasmid using restriction enzymes and ligase, and the resulting recombinant plasmid is introduced into the host cell using techniques such as electroporation or transformation. The new gene is then expressed by the host cell, producing the desired protein or other product.

What is a virus and how does it infect cells?

A virus is a small infectious particle that can reproduce only by infecting living cells. Viruses consist of a nucleic acid genome (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protective coat called a capsid, and may also have an outer envelope derived from the host cell membrane. Viruses infect cells by attaching to specific receptors on the cell surface, penetrating the cell membrane, and injecting their genome into the cell cytoplasm or nucleus. Once inside the cell, viruses take over cellular machinery to replicate their genome and produce new virus particles, which then bud off from the infected cell or lyse it to release more viruses into the environment.

What is CRISPR-Cas9 and how does it enable precise genome editing?

CRISPR-Cas9 is a revolutionary technology for genome editing that allows researchers to make precise changes to DNA sequences with unprecedented accuracy and efficiency. CRISPR-Cas9 is derived from bacterial immune systems that use CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to guide Cas9 endonuclease to specific target sequences in invading viruses or plasmids for cleavage and destruction. In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, crRNA and tracrRNA are synthesized in vitro and fused together to form a single guide RNA (sgRNA), which directs Cas9 endonuclease to specific target sequences in genomic DNA for cleavage. The resulting double-strand break (DSB) can be repaired by cellular repair mechanisms such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR), which can introduce precise changes to DNA sequences or insert new genes into specific locations in the genome with high efficiency and accuracy.

How is genetic engineering different from traditional breeding?

Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of an organism's genetic material using modern biotechnology techniques, such as introducing specific genes from one organism into another. Traditional breeding, on the other hand, involves the crossing of plants or animals with desired traits to obtain offspring with those traits.

What are the potential benefits of biotechnology?

Biotechnology has the potential to provide solutions to various challenges, including improving crop yield and nutritional content, developing new medicines and treatments, creating biofuels, and addressing environmental problems such as pollution.

Are genetically modified organisms (GMOs) safe?

Numerous scientific studies have demonstrated that GMOs that have been approved for human consumption are safe. Regulatory bodies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, have rigorous guidelines for assessing the safety of GMOs before they are approved for cultivation or consumption.

Can biotechnology be used to create personalized medicine?

Yes, biotechnology can be used to create personalized medicine. For example, genetic testing and analysis can help identify an individual's genetic makeup and tailor treatment options accordingly.

What are the ethical considerations in biotechnology?

Ethical considerations in biotechnology include issues related to the use of genetically modified organisms, potential environmental impacts, and the equitable distribution of biotechnological advancements.

Can biotechnology help with environmental sustainability?

Yes, biotechnology can contribute to environmental sustainability. For example, it can be used to develop biodegradable materials, clean up pollutants, and produce renewable energy sources.

How do vaccines work?

Vaccines work by introducing a weakened or killed form of a pathogen or its components into the body. This stimulates the immune system to produce a response, including the production of antibodies, which helps protect against future infections.

What is the role of biotechnology in agriculture?

Biotechnology plays a role in agriculture by improving crop productivity, disease resistance, and nutritional content. It also enables the development of genetically modified crops that can withstand harsh environmental conditions and reduce the need for pesticides.

How is biotechnology used in the production of pharmaceuticals?

Biotechnology is used in the production of pharmaceuticals through techniques such as recombinant DNA technology. This involves inserting specific genes into host organisms, such as bacteria or yeast, to produce large quantities of proteins or other molecules that can be used as drugs.

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